1) Perfection / Chaos (Physical Mental)
The person has a need for perfection, for order, and for structure. Angry neatness. If I am perfect then I will be loved.
The person seeks to meet their Goal through actions and ideas.
Enneagram Type 1 Perfectionist, Reiss Order, Oldham Conscientious, DISC Conscientiousness.
Key phrases: judges, is moody, sets the world straight, thrifty, hard-working, direct, careful, determined, there is always
a right way to do something, intolerant, efficient, orderly, on time, hates imperfections, is redeemed by patience and tolerance,
thinks hard work is the answer, wants to strive, resents, neat, seeks perfection, jealous, cautious, unadaptable, anxious,
conscientious, tidies through life, self-disciplined, teacher, sweats the finest details.
2) Placidity / Passion (Physical Emotional)
The person has a need to avoid or mask stress, to have calm and slowness. Going with the stream. If I displease no one
then I will be loved. The person seeks to meet their Goal through actions and emotions / aesthetics.
Enneagram Type 9 Peacemaker, Reiss Tranquillity (in part), Oldham Leisurely.
Key phrases: slothful, endless ruminating, mediates, do the minimum, diplomat, self- doubting, understanding, reassures,
easygoing, passive, do it tomorrow, repressed, administrator, lazy (but may work hard on own projects, or to avoid rocking
the boat), characterless, lives in peace with others, leisurely, often low apparent sex drive, altruistic, inner quiet,
luck comes to those who wait, harmony, comfortable in own space, sensible, protects own space, infinitely stubborn,
indifferent, loves all, 'whenever', low key, preserves, hates distress, redeemed by diligence and character, nice, think
s resignation is the answer, wants peace at any price, sleeps through life, seeks union with others, indulges appetites
for self-narcosis (e.g. may overeat), couch potato.
3) Dominance / Submission (Physical Social)
The person has a need to confront, to dominate others and their environment. Coming on strong. If I am strong
then I will be loved. The person seeks to meet their Goal through actions and relationships.
Enneagram Type 8 Controller, Reiss Power, Reiss Vengeance, Oldham Aggressive, Dominance.
Key phrases: confront, boss, attacking, vengeful, ambitious, backbiting, aggressive, determined, fearless, spontaneous,
dictatorial, creative / destructive, eye for an eye, possessive, involved in the world, need to conquer, command, likes
contact sports, outspoken, challenge, lustful, hates weakness, redeemed by compassion and philanthropy, thinks being strong
is the answer, wants power, leads, seeks own brand of justice, bulldozes through life, advocate, confident, expands and
exceeds, survive, in moderation is assertive.
4) Rationality / Irrationality (Mental Physical)
The person has a need to perceive, to satisfy their curiosity, to analyse, to understand. Wholeness through isolation.
If I know then I will be loved. The person seeks to meet their Goal through ideas and actions.
Enneagram Type 5 Thinker, Reiss Curiosity, Oldham Idiosyncratic, Oldham Serious (in part).
Key phrases: observant, trustworthy, intellectual, confident, understand, oblivious to convention, investigate, own world
view, selfish, wisdom, detached, polymath, sensitive to rejection, knowledge, analytic, curious, uncompromising, realistic,
judicious, observes all of life, superior, loves to learn new things, academic, serious, plan for all eventualities, aloof,
stingy, perceptive, eccentric, hates emptiness, redeemed by generosity and exploration, thinks gathering observations is
the answer, wants to be objective, synthesizes, watches through life, responsible, scholarly, logical, scientist, journalist,
open-minded, think before acting.
5) Cheerfulness / Reserve (Mental Emotional)
The person has a need to avoid pain, to be optimistic. Opportunistic idealism. If I am light-hearted then I will be loved.
The person seeks to meet their Goal through ideas and emotions / aesthetics.
Enneagram Type 7 Optimist, Reiss Social Contact (in part), Oldham Mercurial.
Key phrases: avoids pain, lives in fantasy, epicure, playful, adaptable, mercurial, fun- loving, emotional, superficial, manic,
optimistic, adventurous, risk-taker, futurist, active, enthusiastic, feels happy, always planning, extroverted, always beginning,
dilettante, uplifting, uninhibited, boisterous, dreamer, energetic, butterfly, passionate, hates complexity of life, avoids harsh
realities, redeemed by completing tasks, thinks boundless optimism is the answer, plays through life, wants to look to the future,
materialistic, life of the party.
6) Idealism / Expediency (Mental Social)
The person has a need to live by moral rules or principles. Righteous virtue. If I follow true values then I will be loved.
The person seeks to meet their Goal through ideas and relationships.
No Enneagram equivalent, Reiss Honour (in part), Reiss Idealism (in part), Reiss Independence (in part), Oldham Vigilant, Oldham Sensitive (in part).
Key phrases: independent, everyone should live by principles, decisive, reformer, strong moral values, protective, sanctimonious,
attempts to change the world, good listener, treats suggestions seriously, values truthfulness and honour and discretion,
cares what others think about them, self-righteous, prefers routine, courteous, self-reliant, idealistic, deliberate,
compassionate, preaches through life, organized, loves to discuss structure and process, responsible, private, reserved.
7) Sensualism / Abstinence (Emotional Physical)
The person has a need for romance, sex, dining, drinking, sensation, and risk-taking. Sensation without responsibility.
If I experience then I will be loved. The person seeks to meet their Goal through emotions / aesthetics and actions.
No Enneagram equivalent, Reiss Romance (in part), Reiss Eating (in part), Oldham Dramatic (in part), Oldham Adventurous.
Key phrases: dramatic, rootless, self-indulgent, demonstrative, affectionate, inconsiderate, selfish, impulsive, exciting,
mischievous, storytellers, outwardly emotional, entertainers, egotistical, independent, well-dressed, seductive, likes high
risk sports, adventurous, quick to try new experiences, indulges through life, persuasive, unconventional, live for the present.
8) Uniqueness / Conformity (Emotional Mental)
The person has a need to be different from others. Happiness through pain. If I am special then I will be loved. The
person seeks to meet their Goal through emotions / aesthetics and ideas.
Enneagram Type 4 Individualist, Reiss Romance (in part), Oldham Artistic.
Key phrases: be an individual, melancholy, kind, generous, creative, wild mood swings, discouraged, introspective, sensitive,
spends time alone, tragic-romantic, elegant, recognizes feelings, original, lovable, envious, appreciates self, originality,
artist, sporadically very hard-working, conceit, hates inferiority, actor, introverted, occasional bursts of extroversion,
redeemed by serenity and balance, thinks authenticity is the answer, wants to develop a singular identity, manic / depressive,
loves beauty and nature, innovator, thinks symbolically, suffers through life, emphasizes aesthetics, intuitive, relationships often secondary.
9) Nurturing / Abandoning (Emotional Social)
The person has a need to provide for and guide others. Care for my future. If I nurture then I will be loved. The person
seeks to meet their Goal through emotions / aesthetics and relationships.
No Enneagram equivalent, Reiss Family, No Oldham equivalent.
Key phrases: nurturing, being responsible, raising children, controlling, being domestic, keeping pets, provider, gardening,
mentoring employees, protective, patient, teaching, redeemed by self-reliance, thinks family values are the answer, interfering,
cares through life, farming, caretaker.
10) Success / Equality (Social Physical)
The person has a need for status and success. Success through appearances. If I am successful then I will be loved. The
person seeks to meet their Goal through relationships and actions.
Enneagram Type 3 Achiever, Reiss Status, Reiss Social Contact (in part), Oldham Inventive, Oldham Self-confident, Influence.
Key phrases: insistent, motivates, private, self-assured, narcissistic, focuses on outer success, goal setter, performs,
virile/feminine, inventor, competitive, wants to be important, active, fashionable, energetic, love and be loved, hides
behind strength, succeeds, achieves, deceitful, ambitious, ignores conventional wisdom, expedient, vain, be the best, hates
failure, reality distortion, enjoys work, snobbish, redeemed by integrity, thinks completing tasks is the answer, wants to
be recognized and admired, manipulative of groups, seeks prestige and wealth, demands respect, promoter, leader, productive,
struts through life, excellence, shows off, I'll be what impresses you, can't handle criticism, believes in self.
11) Loyalty / Autonomy (Social Mental)
The person needs to be loyal to and adopt the values of a group. Persecuted persecutor. If I belong then I will be loved.
The person seeks to meet their Goal through relationships and ideas.
Enneagram Type 6 Guardian, Reiss Acceptance, Reiss Honour (in part), Reiss Social Contact (in part), Reiss Independence (in part, as the polar opposite), Oldham Devoted, Steadiness.
Key phrases: masochistic, unsure, dependable, rigid, attached, tactful, interdependent, faithful, ambivalent, cooperative or
rebellious, loyalty, dithering, polite, considerate, recognizes others, strong conscience, defender, devil's advocate, cowardice,
obedient, helplessness, fearful, skepticism, hates aloneness, redeemed by courage, thinks conformity is the answer, wants
acceptance by the group, duty, affection, togetherness, belongs through life, likeable, takes criticism badly, friendly,
stabilizer, devoted, follower, joiner, identifies (only) with group goals.
12) Helping / Uncaring (Social Emotional)
The person has a need to help. Egocentric generosity. If I am needed then I will be loved. The person seeks to meet
their Goal through relationships and emotions / aesthetics.
Enneagram Type 2 Helper, Reiss Idealism (in part), Oldham Self-sacrificing.
Key phrases: helpful, seeks approval, non-competitive, giving, craves attention, finds identity through another, possessive,
generous, compassionate, ethical, tolerant, other- focused, develops friendships, flatterer, concerned, naive, capable,
hates neediness, proud, manipulative of individuals, redeemed by humility, thinks helping is the answer, loving, sacrifices
through life, wants to win love, resentful if not appreciated, partner, self- sacrificing.
- What's My Type? by K. V. Hurley and T. E. Dobson (Enneagram)
- Who Am I? by S. Reiss (Reiss)
- The New Personality Self-Portrait by J. M. Oldham (Oldham)
- Emotions of Normal People by W. Marston, as developed by Inscape Publishing (DISC)